"Betta" Research Paper

PheonixKingZ

Fish Expert
Tank of the Month!
Pet of the Month!
Fish of the Month!
Joined
May 8, 2019
Messages
11,312
Reaction score
6,329
Location
Lawrenceburg, KY
Here is my 10th grade research paper! I was given a choice of what I wants to do it on, and i chose bettas, because they are my favorite fish.

There still may be some grammar issues, so please excuse that, lol. Enjoy:

----------------


Bettas are wonderful creatures, loved by everyone. They are pretty, have amazing fins and colors, and they all have different characters. These fish are extremely popular in the aquarium trade, but they may not be as simple of creatures as commonly thought.

Bettas are naturally found throughout Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Great Basin area. Ornamental fish are found in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic. Bettas are locally found in the Menam River. Humans have introduced Bettas into the Adelaide River, in Australia. They are also found in most households around the planet.

Bettas naturally live in still, sluggish water, including rice paddies, swamps, roadside ditches, streams, and ponds. Substrate is usually leaf litter, mud, sand, or deep sediment. They are often shaded by submerged, surface or marginal vegetation that contains little dissolved oxygen. That is why floating plants are so important in a betta tank.

Caring for a betta requires a lot of steps some people may consider unnecessary. A 10-gallon tank, with base dimension of 45cm x 30cm, is recommended, but they can get by with a 5-gallon tank. Anything under a 5-gallon tank will make the betta uncomfortable, which leads to a shorter life. The tank should be setup with a proper heater, light, and filter. The heater should be adjustable and set to 76F-80F. The filter should be a sponge filter, or a small internal filter with a low flow. A lid is recommended, as bettas are known for, and extremely good at, jumping. As far as the aquascape goes, sand is preferred, along with rocks, driftwood, and any other décor of the owner’s choice. I personally use Quikrite play sand, which is safe for fish. Live plants are a must for bettas, especially floating plants. Most artificial plants will rip the bettas’ delicate fins, so these should be avoided. Plants like Aubias barteri var., Elodea densa, Microsorum pteropus, Vesicularia dubyana, and Salvinia minima are all great choices for a betta setup. Some bettas prefer “moss balls” in their tanks, so they can rest on the soft algae – java moss has a similar effect. Anything sharp in the tank needs to be sanded down or removed. There must still be room for the betta to breath on the surface, so the surface of the tank must not be covered all the way with live plants.

Bettas need to have a healthy diet in order to lead a healthy life. Dry foods, like Omega One, Fluval Bug Bites, and New Life Spectrum, are all excellent choices for bettas. Omega One Betta Buffet and Fluval Bug Bites for Tropical Fish are my personal favorites. Flake food is not recommended for bettas because air can be trapped in their stomach as they come up to eat, which can lead to bloating. Live foods, like Mosquito Larvae, Tubifex Worms, and Bloodworms are also good options, and are healthier for Bettas. Live foods tend to be more expensive than dry food but are better for your betta long term. Places like eBay.com or LiveAquaria.com, are good places to go for live food.

Breeding bettas is fairly easy, but raising the fry is a bit more challenging. The first step in breeding bettas is to find a pair. Healthy, good traits, maturity, and good colors are just a few things you look for when picking a male and female to breed. When looking for one, make sure to determine its gender before you purchase the fish. Most females are mistaken for males when they are younger, because they are not fully matured yet. Females are often harder to find than males because they have more dull colors, and they have less impressive finnage. Males are very popular in the trade, hence making them easier to find. It is best to find both males and females from a reputable betta breeder; this insures good color, traits, and genetics. Buying a pair of bettas from a reputable breeder is the best option for someone just starting to get into breeding bettas. Not only can they help you choose which strain and which fish you should work with, he or she can also provide you with a pair that has compatible genetics. Specific traits will mask other traits, and sometimes the traits of both parents will not be apparent in the offspring. A basic knowledge of betta genetics can help solve these issues before they happen.

There are a lot of superstitions surrounding Betta breeding, some of which could lead to the death of your pair of bettas, or their offspring. Take the salt method for example: Some people believe that if you add a teaspoon of salt per 5 gallons of water, the fish will fare better. That is simply not true, like most of the myths surrounding betta breeding. Getting good, solid advice from an experienced breeder, is a smart move for a new breeder. Always do research before breeding any animal.

A 10-gallon tank is a good size tank to breed bettas. A tank of this size allows for comfortable breathing room and allows sufficient space for one of the pair to escape the other’s advances. 84F is the max recommended temperature for breeding bettas. Anything above that can result in weak fry, which are unlikely to survive. 3 to 12 inches is recommended for the water level in the tank. Breeders find no difference in low or deep water, and they report that even if all the fry aren’t returned to the bubble nest by their fathers, they can and will survive on the bottom, until they are free-swimming. Aeration and Filtration are important in a regular betta tank, but not so much in a betta breeding tank. Strong water movement will destroy the males delicate bubble nest and will overwhelm the fry. Soft sponge filters, with a gentle flow, are the best option for a betta breeding tank. This way, the bubble nest will not be disturbed, biofiltration will still be provided, and the suction will be at a minimal, resulting in less fry death.

When you add the male and female in the tank, neither will likely be willing to spawn right then. There is usually a lot of sparring, where one fish is ready to breed, but the other is not. This activity can result in serious injury, usually ending in the female’s death. Visual barriers, such as driftwood, plants, and caves, can be used for sufficient hiding spots, until both are ready to breed. Many breeders use small plastic cups for the female’s temporary floating home. If the male is still trying to get to her through the cup, they know he is not ready yet. When he and she mellow out, then they know it is time to release her.

The actual spawning is quite an exciting thing. The first sign is a bubble nest. When a male makes a bubble nest, it usually means he is healthy and ready to breed. The males bubble nest is an important and distinctive part of the spawning. Some nests are scattered throughout the tank, while others are dense, rising to an impressive inch high. Most of the time, the male will push the eggs all the way up into the nest, while other times, he may just clump them under the bottom of the nest.

Floating plants are highly suggested when breeding bettas, as well as plants like Echinodorus grisebachii and Ceratopteris thalictroides. Even items like lettuce, wax paper, clean plastic cups, and food wrappers, make excellent bubblenest templates. These “templates” will give the male a general idea of where/how big he wants to make the bubble nest. A template is not required but is preferred in most cases.

The courtship of the pair is quite an amazing spectacle. The courtship usually starts as soon as the female is released or comes out of hiding. Gills are spread, colors enhance, and even a change in patterns occurs. They swim side by side very fast, trembling, and even sometimes slapping each other with their tails. When the female gets scared off from his attacks, the male works more on his bubble nest until she comes back out; then, the ritual repeats. The male then tries to lure the female under his bubble nest. It usually takes a few tries, but once the female is under the nest, the actual breeding may commence. The females ovipositer is a visible tube, protruding from her vent. After the pair circles for a bit, the female turns upside down. The male, on his side, curved over her body, creates the perfect position for both their vents. Once their vents are in proximity, the fish freeze for a moment. The first few tries are usually dry runs, but soon they will produce up to 50 eggs. The male then goes to work, collecting the fallen eggs, and placing them in his bubble nest. The female also assists in the egg collecting, but not as much. When the female is out of eggs, she retreats to a safe hiding spot, away from the male. She should then be promptly removed from the tank, so there is no aggression between her and the male.

It takes about 24 hours for the eggs to hatch, but the fry hang tail down from the nest for another 36 hours. After that time is up, they start to wander from the nest. The male does the best he can to corral the fry back to the nest. At this point, it is recommended to remove the male betta.

Raising the fry is the most challenging part of breeding bettas. They are very prone to disease and are very weak. Clean water is the best thing to prevent both of the above. Feeding the fry can also be challenging. Cleaning the tank is very important to keep the fry healthy and alive. Siphoning out the bottom of the tank, and only at the bottom of the tank, is required, or waste will build up, causing poor water parameters. Most betta breeders feed their fry baby brine shrimp right away. The fry take to this very quickly and gobble them up at feeding time. But still there are other batches that cannot eat or refuse to eat the shrimp. At this point, they rely on foods like micro worms, vinegar eels, and infusoria. Some fry can live on the microorganisms in the tank, but this should not be counted on.

Eventually, the fry will grow out their tank. At this point, they must be moved to different living quarters. 10 fry per gallon of water is a good start, but only if the frequent water changes are being performed. After about 2 months of age, they will be sexually distinguishable. At this point, the males can be removed and placed in their own tanks. The females may remain in the same tank, but may need to be removed as time progresses.

Bettas are susceptible to a number of common aquarium diseases. As usual, clean water is the best way to prevent such diseases. Fin rot is one of the most common. This disease forms due to poor water quality and affects the fins. Bettas that have had recent injuries to the fins are the most at risk to develop fin rot. Fin rot can be treated easily. 75%+ daily water changes per day, for a week usually clears up fin rot. Some think that added salt will help, but it seems to make no difference. The same treatment above can help solve a few of the common injuries including missing scales and torn fins. Weekly water changes after the fin rot has disappeared will help prevent this in the future.

Ichthyophthirius, more commonly known as ‘ich’, is one the most common aquarium disease. Bettas are hardier than most other fish, but they still can develop it. Ich is a parasite that attaches itself to a fish’s skin. The parasite sucks the fish’s blood until it is big/strong enough to detach itself, then it floats to the bottom. There, it splits up and reproduces. At this point, you will not see any white spots on the fish. After some time has passed, the parasite will have ruptured, releasing hundreds of new parasites into the water, all of which are looking for a new host. Some think that Ich is not deadly for a fish because it is not internal; that is simply not true. When the parasite detaches itself, it leaves a little scab on the fish’s skin. You may not think this is such a big deal, but if the fish had hundreds of these on its gills, this can make it difficult for the fish to breath, causing death.

Treatment is simple enough but requires dedication. The ‘Heat Treatment’ is probably the most common and one of the easiest treatments. Increasing the temperature of the water to 86F for 2 weeks will usually kill off the parasite. If the water is below 75F, then the temperature should be raised to 86F slowly, over a 24-48-hour period. Another method of treatment is with any medication that contains Malachite Green. Malachite Green is a chemical that contains powerful anti-fungal properties, that can easily kill parasites. Please note that Malachite Green is known to cause cancer, so you should always wash your hands after coming into contact with this chemical.

Betta fish are extremely popular in the aquarium trade, but they may not be as simple of creatures as commonly thought. As you have read, bettas are not the carefree, easy creatures they are commonly thought to be. They need room. Bettas cannot be housed in a small bowl as commonly thought. They need a healthy diet. Bettas need a healthy, protein rich diet to live a happy, healthy life. They are susceptible to diseases, if not properly cared for. And they have an amazing reproduction method. “Betta fish symbolize independence and the defiant spirit, warrior energy, deep knowledge, and creativity”, says artist Wendy Overly.

Works Cited​



Boruchowitz, David. Aquarium Care of Bettas. NJ: TFH Publications, Inc., 2006, Print.



“Betta splendens.” Seriously Fish. https://www.seriouslyfish.com/species/betta-splendens/



“What is ICH?” Tropical Fish Forums. @Colin_T, post #16. https://www.fishforums.net/threads/what-is-ich.7092/page-2



“Betta” Dancing River Arts Studio. https://www.dancingriverartsstudio.com/product-page/siamese-fighting-fish-betta
 

Koglin

Fish Crazy
Joined
Sep 13, 2020
Messages
243
Reaction score
292
Location
Denver, CO
Yeah, you're gonna do just fine on your college papers. College writing styles can be tricky but this is great. Good job of paraphrasing. If you'd like any tips let us know!

Good use of sources too, put in some nice research. I particularly like that you got @Colin_T's post about Ich in there xD
 

Colin_T

Fish Guru
Joined
Jan 26, 2008
Messages
22,481
Reaction score
7,237
Location
Perth, WA
Can we make changes?
I will mark the things I change by bolding them.

Use a capital B whenever you write Betta because it's the genus name as well as a common name. The genus name always starts with a capital letter.

Specify what species of Betta you are talking about because there are lots of species of Betta and some are mouth brooders and others build bubblenests.

The Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens)

Betta splendens (aka Bettas) are wonderful creatures, loved by everyone. They are pretty, have amazing fins, come in a range of different colors, and they all have different characters. These fish are extremely popular in the aquarium trade, but they may not be as simple of creatures as commonly thought.


(Put sub titles in at each section and a double space "enter enter" between the last sentence and the next sub title)
Natural Habitats or something like that
Bettas are naturally found throughout Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Great Basin area. Ornamental fish are found (delete this bolded text and replace with around the world or explain what you mean by ornamental fish are found public water ways, ponds and aquariums in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic). Bettas are locally found in the Menam River (which country). Humans have introduced Bettas into the Adelaide River, in Australia. They are also found in most (replace most with "lots of") households around the planet.

Bettas naturally live in still or sluggish water including rice paddies, swamps, roadside ditches, streams, and ponds. (that contains little dissolved oxygen or . These often contain little dissolved oxygen) They are often shaded by trees, marginal vegetation, and floating plants. (delete this bit "surface or marginal plants"). (delete this part and move up where I put it at the start of this paragraph "that contains little dissolved oxygen"). That is why floating plants are so important in a Betta's tank. (moved down to here from above "Substrate is usually leaf litter, mud, sand, or deep sediment".)


Aquarium Housing

Caring for a betta requires a lot of steps some people may consider unnecessary. A 10-gallon tank, with base dimension of 45cm x 30cm, is recommended, but they can get by with a 5-gallon tank. Anything under a 5-gallon tank will make the betta uncomfortable, which can lead to a shorter life. The tank should be setup with a proper heater, light, and filter. The heater should be adjustable and set to 76F-80F. The filter should be an air operated sponge filter, or a small internal power filter with a low flow. A lid is recommended, as bettas are known for, and extremely good at, jumping. As far as the aquascape goes, sand is preferred, along with smooth rocks (or use smooth rocks so the Betta doesn't scratch itself), driftwood, and any other décor of the owner’s choice. I personally use Quikrite play sand, which is safe for fish. Live plants are a must for bettas, especially floating plants. Most artificial plants will rip the bettas’ delicate fins, so plastic or fake plants (delete "these") should be avoided. Plants like Aubias barteri var., Elodea densa, Microsorum pteropus, Vesicularia dubyana, and Salvinia minima are all great choices for a betta setup. Some bettas prefer “moss balls” in their tanks, so they can rest on the soft algae – Java moss has a similar effect. Anything sharp in the tank needs to be sanded down or removed. There must still be room for the betta to breath at (delete "on") the surface, so the surface of the tank must not be covered completely (delete "all the way") with live plants.


Dietary Requirements or Diet
Bettas need to have a healthy diet in order to lead a healthy life. Dry foods, like Omega One, Fluval Bug Bites, and New Life Spectrum, are all excellent choices for bettas. Omega One Betta Buffet and Fluval Bug Bites for Tropical Fish are my personal favorites. Flake food is not recommended for bettas because air can be trapped in their stomach as they come up to eat, which can lead to bloating. Live foods, like Mosquito Larvae, Tubifex Worms, and Bloodworms are also good options, and are healthier for Bettas. Live foods tend to be more expensive than dry food but are better for your betta long term. Places like eBay.com or LiveAquaria.com, are good places to go for live food.


Breeding/ Reproduction
Breeding bettas is fairly easy, but raising the fry is a bit more challenging. The first step in breeding bettas is to find a pair. Healthy, good traits, maturity, and good colors are just a few things you look for when picking a male and female to breed. When looking for one, make sure to determine its gender before you purchase the fish. Most females are mistaken for males when they are younger, because they are not fully matured yet. Females are often harder to find than males because they have more dull colors, and they have less impressive finnage. Males are very popular in the trade, hence making them easier to find. It is best to obtain (delete "find") both males and females from a reputable betta breeder; as this insures good color, traits, and genetics. (maybe reword this sentence "Buying a pair of fish from a reputable breeder is the best option for someone just starting to get into breeding bettas"). maybe use (Getting fish from a reputable breeder is the best option for someone who is trying to breed Bettas for the first time.) Not only can they help you choose which strain and which fish you should work with, he or she can also provide you with a pair that has compatible genetics. Specific traits will mask other traits, and sometimes the traits of both parents will not be apparent in the offspring. A basic knowledge of betta genetics can help solve these issues before they happen.

There are a lot of superstitions surrounding Betta breeding, some of which could lead to the death of your pair of bettas, or their offspring. Take the salt method for example: Some people believe that if you add a teaspoon of salt per 5 gallons of water, the fish will fare better. That is simply not true, like most of the myths surrounding betta breeding. Getting good, solid advice from an experienced breeder, is a smart move for a new breeder. Always do research before breeding any animal.


(try not to start sentences with numbers, see below)
A 10-gallon tank is a good size tank to breed bettas. A tank of this size (delete "allows for comfortable breathing room and") allows sufficient space for one of the pair to escape the other’s advances if they are not compatable. (change to "The maximum recommended temperature for breeding Bettas is 84F. (delete this bit "84F is the max recommended temperature for breeding bettas".) Anything above that can result in weak fry, which are unlikely to survive. (change to "The water level in the breeding tank should be between 3 and 12 inches"). (delete "is recommended for the water level in the tank"). Breeders find no difference in shallow or deep water, and they report that even if all the fry aren’t returned to the bubble nest by their fathers, they can and will survive on the bottom (remove the comma) until they are free-swimming. Aeration and Filtration are important in a regular betta tank, but not so much in a betta breeding tank. Strong water movement will destroy the males delicate bubble nest and will overwhelm the fry. (delete "Soft") Air operated sponge filters (remove the comma) with a gentle flow, are the best option for a Betta breeding tank. This way, the bubble nest will not be disturbed, biological filtration will still be provided, and the suction will be at a minimal, resulting in less fry dying (delete "death"). or (resulting in a lower mortality rate among the newly hatched fry).

When you add the male and female in the tank, neither will likely be willing to spawn right then. There is usually a lot of sparring, where one fish is ready to breed, but the other is not. This activity can result in serious injury, usually ending in the female’s death. Visual barriers, such as driftwood, plants, and caves, can be used for sufficient hiding spots, until both are ready to breed. Many breeders use small plastic cups for the female’s temporary floating home. If the male is still trying to get to her through the cup, they know he is not ready yet. When he and she mellow out, then they know it is time to release her.
(maybe add something like "Keeping the male and female fish in tanks next to each other before breeding, can often let the owner know when both fish are ready to mate because. . . . .")

The actual spawning is quite an exciting thing. The first sign is a bubble nest. When a male makes a bubble nest, it usually means he is healthy and ready to breed. The males bubble nest is an important and distinctive part of the spawning. Some nests are scattered throughout the tank, while others are dense, rising to an impressive inch high. Most of the time, the male will push the eggs all the way up into the nest, while other times, he may just clump them under the bottom of the nest.
(maybe say how the bubble nest is made. eg: "The male takes in a mouthful of air and coats it in a thin layer of mucous. The mucous traps the air and stops the bubble popping straight away. The bubble is then place at the surface under a plant leaf or something that stops it floating away. More bubbles are produced and added until there is a raft of bubbles about 3-4 inches in diameter.")

Floating plants are highly suggested when breeding bettas, as well as plants like Echinodorus grisebachii and Ceratopteris thalictroides. Even items like lettuce leaves, wax paper, clean plastic cups, and food wrappers, make excellent bubblenest templates. These “templates” will give the male a general idea of where and how big he wants to make the bubble nest. A template is not required but is preferred in some (delete "most") cases.

The courtship of the pair is quite an amazing spectacle. The courtship usually starts as soon as the female is released into the aquarium or comes out of hiding. Gills are flared and fins are spread out to show off to the prospective mate. Colors enhance, and even a change in patterns can occur. The two fish swim side by side (delete "very fast"), trembling, and sometimes even slapping each other with their tails. (delete "When") If the female gets scared off from his attacks, the male works more on his bubble nest until she comes back out, then the ritual repeats. If the pair are compatible, then mating starts. The male will try (delete "then tries") to lure the female under his bubble nest. It usually takes a few tries, but once the female is under the nest, the actual breeding may commence. The female's ovipositer is a visible tube, protruding from her vent. After the pair circles for a bit, the female turns upside down. The male, on his side, curved over her body, creates the perfect position for both their vents. Once their vents are in proximity, the fish freeze for a moment and release their gametes. The first few tries are usually dry runs, but soon the female will produce up to 500 eggs and the male will fertilise them. The eggs are released a few at a time and the male then goes to work collecting them (delete "fallen eggs,") and places them in his bubble nest. Some of the females will (delete "The female also") assist in the egg collecting, but not as much. When the female is out of eggs, she retreats to a safe hiding spot (removed comma) away from the male. She should then be promptly removed from the tank (removed comma) so there is no aggression between her and the male.

It takes about 24 hours for the eggs to hatch, but the fry hang tail down from the nest for another 36 hours. During this time, the fry are living off their yolk sac. Once the yolk sac is gone and the fry have developed a bit, (delete "After that time is up,") they start moving away (delete "to wander") from the nest. The male does (delete "the best he can") his best to corral the fry back to the nest. At this point (delete comma) it is recommended to remove the male betta.

Raising the fry is the most challenging part of breeding bettas. They are very prone to disease and are very weak. Clean water is the best thing to prevent both of the above. Feeding the fry can also be challenging. Cleaning the tank is very important to keep the fry healthy and alive. Siphoning out the bottom of the tank, and only at the bottom of the tank, is required, or waste will build up, causing poor water parameters. Most betta breeders feed their fry baby brine shrimp right away. The fry take to this very quickly and gobble them up at feeding time. But still there are other batches that cannot eat or refuse to eat the shrimp. At this point, they rely on foods like micro worms, vinegar eels, and infusoria. Some fry can live on the microorganisms in the tank, but this should not be counted on.

Eventually, the fry will out grow their tank. At this point, they must be moved to different living quarters. Ten fry per gallon of water is a good start, but only if the frequent water changes are being performed or there is an established biological filter in the tank. After about 2 months of age, they will be sexually distinguishable. At this point, the males can be removed and placed in their own tanks. The females may remain in the same tank, but may need to be removed as time progresses. (explain why they need to be removed as time progresses)


Diseases

Bettas are susceptible to a number of common aquarium diseases. As usual, clean water is the best way to prevent such diseases. Fin rot is one of the most common. This disease forms due to poor water quality and affects the fins. Bettas that have had recent injuries to the fins are the most at risk to develop fin rot. Fin rot can be treated easily. 75%+ daily water changes per day, for a week usually clears up fin rot. Some think that added salt will help, but it seems to make no difference. The same treatment above can help solve a few of the common injuries including missing scales and torn fins. Weekly water changes after the fin rot has disappeared will help prevent this in the future.

Ichthyophthirius, more commonly known as ‘ich’ or whitespot, is one the most common aquarium disease. Bettas are hardier than most other fish, but they still can develop it. Ich is a protozoan parasite that attaches itself to a fish’s skin. The parasite sucks the fish’s blood until it is big/strong enough to detach itself, then it sinks (delete "floats") to the bottom. There, it reproduces itself through division. (delete "splits up and reproduces"). At this point, you will not see any white spots on the fish. After a few days (delete "some time has passed"), the cyst housing the parasites will rupture (delete "have ruptured"), releasing hundreds of new parasites into the water, all of which are looking for a new host.

(maybe make a new paragraph because the bit above is about the lifecycle and the bit below is more about physical damage to the fish)

Some think that Ich is not deadly for a fish because it is not internal, (don't need a semi colon) that is simply not true. When the parasite detaches itself, it leaves a little scab on the fish’s skin. You may not think this is such a big deal, but if the fish had hundreds of these on its gills, this can make it difficult for the fish to breath, causing death.

Treatment is simple enough but requires dedication. The ‘Heat Treatment’ is probably the most common and one of the easiest treatments. Increasing the temperature of the water to 86F for 2 weeks will usually kill off the parasites. If the water is below 75F, then the temperature should be raised to 86F slowly, over a 24-48-hour period. Another method of treatment is with any medication that contains Malachite Green. Malachite Green is a chemical that contains powerful anti-protozoan (delete "fungal") properties, that can easily kill parasites. Please note that Malachite Green (aka Victoria Green) is known to cause cancer, so you should avoid inhaling or ingesting it and don't get it in your eyes. And always wash your hands after coming into contact with this chemical.


Summary or whatever you want to call the last bit
Betta fish are extremely popular in the aquarium trade, but they may not be as simple of creatures as commonly thought. As you have read, bettas are not the carefree, easy creatures they are commonly thought to be. They need room. Bettas should not (delete "cannot") be housed in a small bowl as commonly thought. They (delete "need a healthy diet. Bettas") need a healthy, varied, protein rich diet to live a happy, healthy life. They are susceptible to diseases (delete comma) if not properly cared for, (don't need a full stop and new sentence) and they have an amazing reproduction method. “Betta fish symbolize independence and the defiant spirit, warrior energy, deep knowledge, and creativity”, says artist Wendy Overly.
 
Last edited:
OP
PheonixKingZ

PheonixKingZ

Fish Expert
Tank of the Month!
Pet of the Month!
Fish of the Month!
Joined
May 8, 2019
Messages
11,312
Reaction score
6,329
Location
Lawrenceburg, KY
Can we make changes?
I will mark the things I change by bolding them.

Use a capital B whenever you write Betta because it's the genus name as well as a common name. The genus name always starts with a capital letter.

Specify what species of Betta you are talking about because there are lots of species of Betta and some are mouth brooders and others build bubblenests.
Well... I considered doing that, but I didn’t think every single B should be capitalized.

I really appreciate all of the changes you have suggested. I will look over those soon and re do some! :)
 
Top