Please, show me how these studies were paid for by the manufacturers of the products involved or those of a competing product. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet.
2001;66(3a):79-86.Use of a nitrifying culture to shorten the activation time of biofilters for the removal of ammonium and nitrite in freshwater aquaria.Grommen R
, Van Hauteghem I
, Van Wambeke M
, Verstraete W
Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.Abstract
The removal of ammonia (NH3
) through nitrification in intensive aquaculture systems is an important process as the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, compromising NH4+
) concentration often is the key limiting water quality parameter in these intensive aquaculture systems. In this study, the performance characteristics of a suspension of nitrifying cells (named ABIL) have been explored This aqueous suspension contains a highly active, nitrifying microbial consortium and is stable for several months when preserved at 4 degrees C. Tests were performed in freshwater at lab scale (70 L, 20 - 24 degrees C). Results showed that the application of the consortium at a dose of 5 mg Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) L(-1) assures a total removal of ammonium and nitrite species from 10 mg N L(-1) to below the detection limit within a period of four days. Experimentally, at a substrate level of 10 mg TAN L(-1), a rate of biological ammonium and nitrite conversion of the order of 0.3 - 0.5 g TAN g(-1) VSS(-1) d(-1) could be achieved by the consortium in the freshwater aquaria systems tested Provided adequate aeration and dissolved oxygen levels of 6 mg per L or more, no important intermediary nitrite concentrations were noticed Only a small amount of TAN was not found back as nitrate and might have been lost due to ammonia stripping After 12 months preservation of the inoculum at 4 degrees C, no important decrease in ammonium removal activity and only a minor decrease in the nitrite removal rate of the consortium were noticed.
PMID:15954566 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From http://www.ncbi.nlm....pt=abstractplusAn improved nitrifying enrichment to remove ammonium and nitrite from freshwater aquaria systems
by R Grommen, I Van Hauteghem, M Van Wambeke
Aquaculture (2002) Volume: 211, Issue: 1-4, Pages: 115-124 Abstract
The total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration is often a key limiting water quality parameter in intensive aquaculture systems. Removing ammonia (NH3
) through biological activity is thus an important objective in aquaria and aquaculture system designs. In this study, the performance characteristics of a suspension of nitrifying cells (named ammonia binding inoculum liquid, ABIL) have been explored. This aqueous suspension contains a highly active, nitrifying microbial consortium that can be used to shorten the start-up period of a biofilter. Tests were performed in freshwater at lab scale (70 l, 20-24 C). Results showed that the application of the consortium at a dose of 5 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS) l-1 assures a total removal of ammonium (NH4+
) and nitrite species from 10 mg N l-1 to below the detection limit within a period of 4 days. Experimentally, at a substrate level of 10 mg TAN l-1, a rate of biological ammonium and nitrite conversion of the order 0.3-0.5 g TAN g-1 VSS-1 day-1 could be achieved by the consortium in the freshwater aquaria systems tested. Provided adequate aeration and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 6 mg l-1 or more, no important intermediary nitrite concentrations were found. Only a small amount of TAN was not recovered as nitrate and might have been lost through ammonia stripping. Pre-inoculating the nitrifiers in polyurethane (PU) sponges and installation of such sponges in the freshwater aquaria did not improve the effect compared to adding the consortium directly to the water. After 12 months preservation of the inoculum at 4 C, no important decrease in ammonium removal activity and only a minor decrease in the nitrite removal rate of the consortium were noticed.
If you are wondering what ABIL is --> http://www.avecom.be...e.php?name=home Novel application of nitrifying bacterial consortia to ease ammonia toxicity in ornamental fish transport units: trials with zebrafish
- A.K.S. Dhanasiri1,
- V. Kiron1,
- J.M.O. Fernandes1,
- Ų. Bergh2,3,
- M.D. Powell1
Article first published online: 27 MAY 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied MicrobiologyAbstractAims:
To evaluate whether two commercial nitrifying bacterial consortia can function as biocontrol agents in ornamental fish transporting systems.Methods and Results:
The consortia were applied in a simulated set-up using zebrafish as the model organism in three trials. The efficacy of the bacterial consortia in controlling the ammonia level was validated by measuring water quality parameters such as total ammonia, nitrate and pH
of the transport water. The bacterial community structure in the transport unit was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The consortia tested improved the nitrifying activity that in turn facilitated the reduction of ammonia that had accumulated during the transport. Bacterial profiles revealed the presence of both ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the transport bags.Conclusions:
The application of the consortia during the transportation of zebrafish could profoundly improve the water quality by curbing ammonia accumulation.Significance and Impact of the Study:
The potential of applying nitrifying bacteria as a bioremediation practice during the transport of ornamental fish has been demonstrated and this innovative approach contributes to the amelioration of current fish welfare in ornamental fish trade.
- Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, University of Nordland, Bodų, Norway
- Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
- Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
Viswanath Kiron, Aquatic Animal Health Research Group, Faculty of Biosciences & Aquaculture, University of Nordland, 8049 Bodų, Norway. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
From http://onlinelibrary...5050.x/abstract(You have to pay to see the full report.)
It isn't really about cycling, but a related issue sort of. Would you like to see one that investigates the use of products that are supposed to help with slime coats? You know that Aloe Vera stuff etc. Hmmmm.........
Abstract Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when
fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water addi-tives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water
conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.
Abstract above from here http://www.springerl...4850u102164201/
Full pdf is here http://www.springerl...01/fulltext.pdf